The Ogdoad can be found as a theme throughout most modern religions and some ancient Religions. An example of this is ancient Egypt. In the picture above you can see that the Sun has been placed in a boat, this is known as the "Solar boat" and it is thought to be part of the force that moves the Sun and the Moon across the sky. But if you look in the Solar boat you will see more Gods than just the Sun and moon, this is because the Egyptians noticed the Planets in the sky and called them Gods, just like the Sun was a God. This religion can be found in Ancient Egypt, Ancient Sumeria, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and Modern India.
In Ancient Egypt they were very good at keeping records, and not just in hieroglyphs but in other ways. For example the Egyptians had a 365 day Calendar, they did this by creating a wall to work as a false horizon. Then they would mark the wall every day when the Sun came up, and throughout the year the Sun moves across the Horizon, and at the end of 365 days it ends up back in the same spot and they have 365 marks on the wall.
This is also where the Constellations come from. Aquarius and Taurus and Pisces and Libra and Leo and Scorpio, etc. Aren't random, those are the stars the Sun passes through, and those give us the names of our months.
Venus = ♀
Mars = ♂
Sun = Gold
Moon = Silver
Mercury = Mercury
Venus = Copper
Mars = Iron
Jupiter = Tin
Saturn = Lead
Aries, the Ram=April=Amethyst
Taurus, the Bull=May=Agate
Gemini, the Twins=June=Beryl
Cancer, the Crab=July=Emerald
Leo, the Lion=August=Ruby
Virgo, the Virgin=September=Jasper
Libra, the Balance=October=Diamond
Scorpio, the Scorpion=November=Topaz
Sagittarius, the Archer=December=Carbuncle
Capricorn, the Goat=January=Onyx Chalcedony
Aquarius, the Waterbearer=February=Sapphire
Pisces, the Fishes=March =Chrysolite
Then there was Horus who represented the Horizon, but he was the planet Mars. They figured out the Cycle of Mars just like the Sun, and they also had the Moon's Cycles (And Moon Cycles give the lengths of our Months) and the Cycles of various planets. Even the Jewish Nomads knew about some of the Planets, they called Mars "The Blushing One". And in Christianity the 7 known planets of the time can be found in the Ancient Greek Christian Gnostic idea of "The 7 Heavens" which represented the "Bodies in the Heavens" or "Planets". Some people like to say "The Planets were named after the Gods, the Gods weren't named after the planets" but that would only be true if Greece and Rome discovered the planets independently, but Greece found them before Rome and showed them to Rome. And Egypt and Sumeria actually found them first. The 7 Heavenly bodies can still be found in our days of the week "Sun day" for the Sun, "Mon Day" for the Moon, etc.
Saturn = Saturday
Sun = Sunday
Moon = Monday
Mars = Tuesday
Mercury = Wednesday
Jupiter = Thursday
Venus = Friday
A lot of people see statues of Zeus now a days and think that Ancient people thought Zeus threw lightning bolts at them, but before people knew about Gravity and the Atmosphere, they thought the Planets controlled the weather and it was specifically thought that Jupiter (Zeus) controlled the Lightning. Many Temples were forms of schools, or places that kept traditions and codes, similar to Freemason lodges today. For example the Cult of Mithras was the Government of Rome, Temples to Imhotep and Asclepius were the first Hospitals. Other examples are Orphism, the Mysteries of Isis, Dionysian Mysteries, Eleusinian Mysteries, etc.
|Calliope||Epic poetry||Writing tablet, Stylus, Lyre|
|Clio||History||Scrolls, Books, Cornet, Laurel wreath|
|Euterpe||Music, Song, and Lyric Poetry||Aulos (an ancient Greek musical instrument like a flute), panpipes, laurel wreath|
|Erato||Love poetry||Cithara (an ancient Greek musical instrument in the lyre family)|
|Melpomene||Tragedy||Tragic mask, Sword (or any kind of blade), Club, Kothornos (boots)|
|Polyhymnia||Hymns||Veil, Grapes (referring to her as an agricultural goddess)|
|Thalia||Comedy||Comic mask, Shepherd's crook (the vaudeville act of pulling someone off the stage with a hook is a reference to Thalia's crook), Ivy wreath|
|Urania||Astronomy||Globe and compass|
Many plants used to be thought to have a cycle based on the Planets and not the sun, and in the modern "Old Farmer's Almanac" every year they publish the planetary crop planting cycle. And the history of Machines and Gears actually comes from the measuring of the sky on boats, and people making mechanical navigation devices. So Machines come from this also.