First, Substrate. Soil has more Mercy, if you mess up in Hydroponic your plants will most likely die, while in soil you get days of warning and a few days to correct it, unless you really mess up. So soil is probably best for anyone just starting.
Then there is Coco Coir. Coco coir is Coconut shell fibers. It looks and works like soil, but it does not retain moisture like water does, so it allows your plants to grow to Hydroponic sizes using soil. So Coco gives you the best of both worlds.
Mylar. This will help you in Veg Cycle and Flower Cycle. People claim "If you have white walls you will be ok" or "If you put up paper you will be ok" but Mylar seriously helps. If you just have white walls you will lose a LOT of light, but if you look up "Space Blanket" on amazon you can get a pack of Mylar for cheap and you will see the difference. Or if you just do it from day 1 you will be set. If you get a grow tent the Mylar is usually built in.
Also for anyone just starting, when the "Veg Cycle" cycle is referenced, this means after your seedling is over like 1 inch tall and is past the "Germination" stage and has its first little leaves. Veg Cycle means you turn the light on for 24 hours a day or 18 hours a day, you get to pick this one. People claim plants can only absorb 18 hours of light, so most people choose 18. During the Veg Cycle is when your plant does the most growing. Veg Cycle usually lasts about 2 months, you can do it shorter or longer. If you buy a clone you get a jump start on Veg since you don't have to start with tiny leaves that hardly gather any light. Veg Cycle does not grow nugs until it is switched to flower.
For Veg Cycle Lights, you want to use CFLs or LEDs, these will produce more light of the right spectrum without running up the light bill like a regular bulb. CFLs and LEDs also won't get as hot as regular bulbs. Try "125 Watt CFL Hood" as a search on Amazon. You can also use Metal Halide bulbs which do get hot and don't save money on electricity, but they work very well.
Flower cycle is when you turn the light on for 12 hours a day and off for 12 hours a day, this makes the plant think that Winter is coming and it starts growing Buds, so that bees will pollinate it so it can make seeds. Some of your plants may be males, to check if you have a male during Veg so you don't get surprised during flower, what you do is make a clone and put the clone in the dark for 24 hours and see if it grows male parts or female parts (cloning is described lower down). ONLY FEMALE GROW BUDS, and males will make your females get seeds. If you don't want seeds, kill the males. Males are only for breeding. Flower Cycle lasts about 2 months, sometimes it can be 7ish weeks or 10ish weeks depending on the strain. You can also look up "30x Scope" or "100x Scope" or "200x Scope" and get a hand held Microscope that will allow you to see when the Trichombs are amber, when they are amber they are done, some people like to harvest at different colors though.
Flower Cycle Lights can be CFL or LED, but it is best to Flower with HPS or Metal Halide. HPS is best, it gives off the perfect light and it makes big frosty nugs. You can do a mixture of LED and HPS or CFL and HPS to get the best results, since HPS are expensive and also do not save on wattage. You can get everything for 100 Watt HPS to 1000 Watt HPS on Amazon, and you can find some amazing 1000 W pictures online.
SCROG shown here
If you are wondering what Nutrients to use it is ok to use anything that works with other foods that are meant to be eaten. Miracle Grow is made for Tomatoes and it works for Marijuana, but most Marijuana Growers use a brand known as "Fox Farm". They have Nutrients for the Veg cycle and the Flower cycle.
Supercropping is where you take the Vegging branches of your plant and Snap them gently. Do a Youtube search for "Supercropping" if you are worried about exactly how much to snap it, but the idea is to snap the branch without breaking it or busting open the skin, so even just a hard hard hard pinch will work. You make each branch bend, but DO NOT break them. What this does is allows the plant to grow scar tissue that will make the branches stronger and allow for bigger nugs. It will also spread out the branches so that light can better reach the bottom.
Topping is where you cut the top off of your plant, and it will grow 2 more tops. You can do this over and over to get as many tops as you want.
Bamboo sticks allow your plant to have extra support. If you use the SCROG method you probably wont need Bamboo sticks, but if you just grow a regular plant then you will probably want to get some, just so your plant can support larger nugs and grows to be a hardier plant.
Cloning is when you Cut the top or a Branch off of the plant, then skin it with a Razor blade to expose the Stem Cells, then plant it in the dirt/coco and let it grow roots.
Grafting is when you use the root system of one plant to grow another plant. If you want to Veg your plant indoors then grow it outside for Summer until it flowers in Fall, then you can either plant it directly in the ground or you can cut the top off of a large bush or a small tree, and replace it with the Marijuana plant. This would allow for the Marijuana plant to get bigger than usual since the other plant would have probably been there for a longer period of time and has larger roots.
Cold Pressed Neem Oil If you have problems with Bugs or think you will, rub your leaves with Cold pressed Neem oil or mix it in water and spray. Don't get processed Neem oil because they take out the main ingredient and it won't work, it has to be Cold Pressed.
There are still more things to learn if you are new, like Organic Growing and Microbes and Phenotypes and Feminized Seeds and stuff like that, but this list should get you started. If you want to breed your own Marijuana Strain, click the Link below.