Sunday, September 3, 2017

Humanity, Part 2 (The Fossil Record)


People  talk about "The Fossil Record" but no one ever has a record to show  you. So I made a giant list. The reason we have mostly skulls is because  they are made to handle impact and seem to last longer than any other  part of the body. And many of these were found in places that no one had  ever found anything. These people usually just go out to some place  random country that someone else found something in and look around the  desert or mountains, etc. Modern Humans are most notable for our teeth,  which marks the true shift in to the modern type of humans. Eventually  mummies became the best way for Archaeologists to get a "snapshot in time". Also, do not think of it as "They were evolving to eventually become us", the way we came about is by Species mixing, and mutants being created, and recombination happening after separation of Species, and mainly mutants with new immune systems, or teeth, or finger muscle, or eye cell, or brain capacity.
(the  colors of these people are not meant to represent the fossil record, it  is just the only one online that shows both male and female evolution)




I am going to start with the DNA record, which comes from studying the DNA of various different peoples. Everyone from Western and Eastern Urban residents, to tribes living on Islands above Australia, to the Native Americans.




There have been various DNA discoveries that have showed us more  and more about humanity. The oldest traces of DNA that can be found in  an ancient person that can be found in people today is from the "Pit of  Bones" in Spain, which is located at the Atapuerca Mountains. This DNA  was found to have been related to the "Denisovans" which as you will see  later, used to interbreed with modern humans.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atapuerca_Mountains
http://abcnews.go.com/Health/pit-bones-yields-oldest-human-dna/story?id=21093890



 Then  there is "Mitochondrial Eve" which is a theoretical mother of humanity  that has been found by looking in to the human genome. And this has also  allowed us to map where we think humans traveled. Looking in to the  genome also allows scientists to look for cataclysmic events, which are  marked by small populations meaning not many choices in mates aka not a  big gene pool at certain times.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrial_Eve



 Then  there was the discovery of Denisovans, which actually came before the  Pit of Bones discovery. And when they tested Denisovan DNA, they found  that it had traces of modern human DNA.
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/denisovan-genome/



 Then  around 40,000 years ago, thanks to Tianyuan cave we see that people in  Asia were related to Native Americans. And the DNA of the Clovis boy  backs this up.
http://www.pnas.org/content/110/6/2223.short



 And Siberian DNA found in Malta, shows that 24,000 years ago Siberians were related to Native Americans.
http://geogenetics.ku.dk/latest-news/malta/



 Then comes the native Brazilian "Indians" that had Polynesian DNA.
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/03/brazil-polynesia-link-dna-skulls_n_2999690.html



The Fossil Record


Sahelanthropus 7 Million years ago


Orririn 6.1-5.7 Million years ago


Ardi 4.4 Million


Laetoli Footprints, first evidence of walking upright 3.6 Million years ago


Australopithecus Bahrelghazali (Abel) 3.6 Million years ago



Kenyathropus 3.5 Million years ago


Little Foot Fossil 3.3 Million years ago


Lucy's Baby 3.3 Million years ago


Lucy 3.2 Million years ago


AL-200-1 3 Million years ago


STS-14 2.7 Million years ago


Mrs. Ples 2.5 Million years ago


Taung Child 2.5 Million years ago


The Black Skull 2.5 Million years ago


STS-71 2.5 Million years ago


Nutcracker Man 2 Million years ago


Homo Habilis 1.4-2.3 Million years ago


KNM-ER-1813 1.9 Million years ago


KNM-ER-1470 1.9 Million years ago


D2700 Dmansi Skull 1.8 Million years ago


OH24 "Twiggy" 1.8 Million years ago


KNM-ER-3733 1.8 Million years ago


TM-1517 1.7 Million years ago


Yuanmou Man 1.7 Million years ago


KNM-ER-406 1.7 Million years ago


KNM-ER-3883 1.6 Million years ago


KNM-ER-992 1.5 Million years ago


Turkana Boy 1.5 Million years ago


Daka Skull 1 Million years ago


Gran Dolina 780,000-800,000 years ago


Peking Man 750,000 years ago


Petralona Cave Man 700,000 years ago


Bodo 600,000 years ago


Mauer 1 600,000 years ago


Denisovan DNA 40,000-700,000 years ago


Tautavel Man 450,000 years ago


Miguelon 400,000 years ago


Alta Mura Man 400,000 years ago


Swanscombe Man 400,000 years ago


Spanish DNA 400,000 years ago from the "Pit of Bones"


Pit of Bones 350,000 years old murder scene


Steinheim Skull 350,000 years ago


Kabwe Homo Rhodesiensis 125,000-300,000 years ago


Bontnewydd 230,000 years ago


Dali Skull 200,000 years ago


Mitochondrial Eve 100,000-200,000 years ago


Omo Remains 195,000 years ago


Idaltu 160,000 years ago


Krapina Fossils 100,000-127,000 years ago


Klasies River Caves 125,000 years ago


Tabun Cave Woman 120,000 years ago


Skhuland Qafzeh Hominids 80,000-100,000 years ago


Homo Floresienses 13,000-94,000 years ago


Shanider Cave 60,000-80,000 years ago

(This is the Stereotypical Neanderthal Cave Man that you think of)

La Farrassie 1 10,000-50,000 years ago


La Chapelle Aux Saints 60,000 years ago


Mungo Man 50,000 years ago
http://cdn.newsapi.com.au/image/v1/bbfb1f24efb7ca4b47d83176ede80cc8

Le Moustier 45,000 years ago


Neanderthal 1 40,000 years ago
http://www.dinocasts.com/images/products/Homo_neanderthalensis640(1).jpg

Pestra Cu Oase 37,800 years ago


Hofmeyr Skull 37,000 years ago


Gibraltar 1 30,000-50,000 years ago


Kent's Cavern 35,000 years ago


Red Lady of Paviland 33,000 years ago


Yamashita Cave Men 32,000 years ago
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yamashita_Cave_Man

Cro Magnon 1 27,500 years ago


Predmost 3 25,000-30,000 years ago


Clogg's Cave 17,000 years ago
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloggs_Cave

Minatogawa Man 15,000 years ago


Eve of Naharon 13,600 years ago


Luzia Woman 11,500 years ago


Kow Swamp Site 6,000-13,000 BC


La Brea Woman 10,000 years ago


Minnesota Woman 8,000 years ago


Uan Muhuggiag 5,000-8,000 years ago


Bog Bodies 9,000 BC to present






Spirit Cave Mummy 9,400 years old


Combe Capelle 7575 BC


Cheddar Man 7150 BC


Chinchorro Mummies 1800-7020 BC


Tepexpan Man 4,700-10,000 years old


Otzi 3,300 BC


3,600 Year Old Egyptian Mummy
http://www.cnn.com/2014/02/13/world/africa/egypt-mummy-discovery/

Tarim Mummies 1,800 BC


Egtvedgirl 1390 BC


Ramses II 1213 BC



Everyone on planet Earth has 4-6% Neanderthal DNA, except for the people of Sub-Saharan Africa, who are 100% Homo Sapien; and the people of Papua New Guinea also have Denisovan DNA.